Phonemic awareness is the awareness of individual sounds in spoken words. For example, ‘cat’ has 3 phonemes /c/, /a/ and /t/ and ‘six’ has 4 phonemes /s/, /i/, /k/, /s/. Having an awareness of individual sounds is critical for reading development, as it is necessary to...

Phonological processing refers to the ability to distinguish and process sounds in spoken words. It is often confused with hearing acuity, but it’s separate to hearing in that the problem is not with the ear. Individuals with phonological processing difficulties often have average hearing, but...